What is a learning disability? (2023)

What is a learning disability?

learning disability

Learning disabilities are a group of neurodevelopmental disordersthis can significantly affect a person's abilitylearnnew stuff.As a result, the person may have trouble with tasks such as speaking, reading, writing, paying attention, comprehending information, remembering things, doing math calculations, or coordinating movements.

Learning disabilities tend to develop at an early age and are often diagnosed during the school years, since the emphasis in school is on learning.It is estimated that 8% to 10% of children under the age of 18 in the United States have some type of learning disability.

However, some people do not receive a diagnosis until they go to college or get a job, and others never receive an official diagnosis. tasks of the day

It is important to understand that people with learning disabilities generally have medium to high intelligence and are often talented in areas such as science, mathematics, visual arts, and other creative pursuits.The person is usually smart and intelligent, but there may be a gap between his potential and the abilities that are expected of a person.your age.

However, some of the most talented and influential people in history had learning disabilities, including Albert Einstein, Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Edison, and Winston Churchill.

This article examines the types, causes, symptoms, and treatment of learning disabilities.

types of learning disabilities

"Learning disability" is a general term that encompasses many types of specific learning disabilities, including:

  • Dyslexia: Dyslexiait is the most common learning disability, accounting for 80% of all learning disability cases.It is a language processing disorder characterized by difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding words. This can cause a person's vocabulary to develop more slowly and lead to problems with grammar, reading, and other language skills.
  • dysgraphia:people withdysgraphiaYou may have trouble putting your thoughts down on paper because of problems with vocabulary, spelling, grammar, memory, and critical thinking. This condition is characterized by poor handwriting, as the person may have difficulty with letter spacing, spatial awareness, and motor planning. Dysgraphia can make it difficult for a person to think and write at the same time.
  • dyscalculia:This condition, sometimes called "math dyslexia," includes math learning problems, such as B. Difficulty with numbers, concepts, and reasoning. people withdyscalculiaYou may have trouble counting money, reading watches and telling time, doing mental math, identifying number patterns, and using math formulas.
  • Auditory Processing Disorder (APD):People with APD may have trouble processing sounds because their brain misinterprets the auditory information received by the ear. background noise in the classroom.
  • Speech Processing Disorder (LPD):This is a subgroup of APD characterized by language processing difficulties.Language. The person may have difficulty assigning meaning to groups of sounds that represent words, phrases, and stories.
  • Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NVLD):TANV is characterized by difficulty interpreting nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and other nonverbal cues.
  • Visual/Visuomotor Perception Deficit:People with this condition may have difficulties with hand-eye coordination and motor activities. They may often lose their position when reading, exhibit unusual eye movements when reading or writing, confuse letters that look similar, have difficulty navigating their environment, and have difficulty handling objects such as pens, pencils, crayons, glue, and scissors.

What is neurodivergence and what does it mean to be neurodivergent?

learning disability symptoms

These are some of the symptoms of learning disabilities:

  • ArmStorage
  • difficulty focusing
  • short attention span
  • Difficulty reading or writing
  • Inability to distinguish between sounds, letters, or numbers
  • Difficulty pronouncing words
  • Tendency to put numbers or letters in the wrong order.
  • Difficulty counting hours.
  • Confusion between right and left.
  • Upside Down Lettering Trend
  • Difficulty understanding certain words and concepts.
  • Separation between words and meaning (that is, saying one thing but meaning another)
  • Difficulty expressing thoughts and feelings.
  • Poor eye-hand coordination
  • delayed language development
  • disorganization
  • Trouble listening and following directions
  • inappropriate responses
  • restlessness and impulsiveness
  • tendency to act
  • discipline difficulty
  • resistance to change
  • Inconsistent performance on a daily or weekly basis

While all children struggle with some of these things from time to time during their school years, people with learning disabilities tend to have a number of these symptoms that persist as they get older.

Laut dem National Institute for Learning Development (NILD)Frustrationit's a hallmark of this condition, as people with learning disabilities often excel at some things but do very poorly at others, and are often self-conscious about the differences between what they can and cannot do.

(Video) Early Signs of a Learning Disability or Learning Disorder

The NILD notes that people with learning disabilities often fail in certain academic or career fields for reasons beyond their control, or have to work extremely hard to succeed. This experience can be difficult, confusing, and demotivating, often leaving the person sad and disappointed.

Causes of learning difficulties

Learning difficulties are caused by differences inneurological functionof the person's brain.These differences can occur before birth, during birth, or in early childhood and can be caused by factors such as:

  • maternal disease during pregnancy
  • Birth complications that block the flow of oxygen to the baby's brain
  • Certain genes that can make you genetically more likely to develop a learning disability
  • injury or disease such as B. meningitis, in early childhood
  • health problems likecerebral palsyand Down syndrome usually involve some degree of learning disability

However, it is important to note that learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems that arise due to other factors, such as:

  • Visual, hearing, verbal or motor impairments
  • limited intellect
  • emotional disturbances
  • Economically, cultural or ecological disadvantages

The relationship between ADHD and learning disabilities

diagnosis of learning problems

A health professional can diagnose learning problems. The diagnostic process may include:

  • academic test:Health professionals canperformance testthat tests a person's reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, as well as aIntelligenzquotienten (IQ)-Test. If the person does well on the IQ test but scores lower on the ability test, it may indicate that they have a learning disability.
  • Performance evaluation:The health professional may review and evaluate the individual's academic, professional, social, and developmental achievements.
  • medical history:The health professional is likely to ask questions about the person's personal and family medical history.
  • Physical and neurological examination:The health care provider may perform a physical and neurological exam to check for other health conditions, such as: B. Brain disorders, mental health conditions, and growth and developmental problems.intellectual difficulties.

Each learning disability has different symptoms and each individual's experience of the condition is unique as they may experience differences in the frequency and intensity of their symptoms.

Some people may have a single, isolated learning disability that does not have a serious impact on their daily lives; while others may have multiple overlapping learning disabilities that make it difficult for them to function without support.

treatment of learning problems

Learning disabilities are permanent conditions that cannot be corrected or cured; However, with early diagnosis, treatment, and support, people with learning disabilities can thrive at school, work, and in their communities.

Treatment for learning disabilities may include:

  • Special education:Children with learning disabilities can benefit from thisTrainingby specially trained educators who carry out a comprehensive assessment of the child's abilities and then help them develop their strengths and compensate for their shortcomings.
  • Medicine:Some people may need to take medicine to improve their ability to concentrate.
  • Therapy:Psychotherapy can help people with learning disabilities deal with emotional problems and develop coping skills.
  • Other interventions:People with learning disabilities may also benefit from other interventions, such as B. speech therapy.
  • Self-help groups:People with learning disabilities, as well as parents of children with learning disabilities, can benefitSelf-help group meetingthat help them connect with other people who have had similar experiences. Learning disabilities can often cause tension, misunderstanding, and conflict within families, particularly families where the condition runs in families.

I Became Dyslexic When I Was 30, This Is How I Treat It

A word from Verywell

Each person is endowed with unique strengths and weaknesses. We are all capable of doing some things with ease, but we struggle in other areas.

(Video) What is IDD?

It is important to realize that while people with learning disabilities have some learning challenges, this is the case.is not inferior to anyone. Special training, treatment, support, kindness, and patience can help them succeed.

11 fuentes

Verywell Mind uses only quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts in our articles. read ourspublishing processfor more information about how we verify our content and keep it accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Vidyadharan V, Tharayil HM.Learning disability or learning difficulty: it's time to rethink.Indian J Psychol Med. 2019;41(3):276-278. doi:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_371_18

  2. National Institute for Learning Development.What is a learning disability?

  3. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Cerebrovascular Accidents.learning difficulties.

  4. Association of America for Learning Disabilities.types of learning disabilities.

    (Video) Common Learning Disabilities

  5. Walden University.7 learning problems that every psychologist should study.

  6. Kohli A., Sharma S., Padhy SK.Specific learning problems: questions that remain unanswered.Indian J Psychol Med. 2018;40(5):399-405. doi:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_86_18

  7. Association of America for Learning Disabilities.learning disability symptoms.

  8. American Academy of Pediatrics.diagnosis of a learning disability.

  9. National Health Service.learning difficulties.

  10. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.How are learning disabilities diagnosed?

  11. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.What are some signs of learning disabilities?

What is a learning disability? (1)

VonSanjana Gupta
Sanjana is a health writer and editor. Her work covers a variety of health-related topics, including mental health, fitness, nutrition, and wellness.

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1. Learning Disabilities, What Are the Different Types?
(The National Center for Learning Disabilities)
2. What is an LD? An introduction to learning disabilities
3. What does having a learning disability mean?
(Maudsley NHS)
4. What is a learning disability?
(Surrey and Borders Partnership NHS Trust)
5. What is a learning disability?
6. Explaining Learning Disabilities


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