Knowing the correct anatomical positions of individual vessels is essential for correct placement of alternative catheters and reduction of trauma.
November 18, 2022|
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Raquel A. Yoquelet
BS, RVT, VTS (ECC), CVMRT
In 2017, Rachel earned her Bachelor's Degree in Veterinary Technology from Purdue University. After graduation, she joined the Department of Critical Care/Emergency Medicine at Purdue University Veterinary Hospital. In 2021 she acquired the accreditation as a specialist veterinarian in emergencies and intensive care. Rachel is passionate about caring for critically ill patients and helping them maintain comfort and mobility during their hospital stay. Rachel is certified in Veterinary Massage and Rehabilitation Therapy as of June 2022. She currently works in the physical rehabilitation department at Purdue and helps teach veterinary nursing students the basics of physical rehabilitation.
Read articles written by Rachel A. Yoquelet
Knowing how certain diseases and conditions affect blood vessels can help determine why you should choose certain IV sites over others. There are many overlooked and underutilized sites for catheter placement.
When catheters are placed at different sites, knowing the relevant anatomy, including the underlying muscles and nerves, and where the vein is located, can help reduce the risk of tissue damage in that area. Proper catheter care and maintenance will increase its longevity and may reduce the number of times a new catheter needs to be inserted.
Points to take home
- When the cephalic vein cannot be used, there are several other intravenous access points.
- To avoid damage to surrounding structures, it is important to know which muscles and nerves surround the vein to be catheterized.
- Indications and contraindications vary by region.
- Aseptic technique should be used for placement of all intravenous catheters.
VSufficient access is essential for the care of veterinary patients, as it provides a route for the administration of fluids, medications and blood products, as well as a source of blood for sample collection. The most common site for intravenous (IV) access in small animal patients is the cephalic vein. However, what if this vein is not available? Why might we need to choose another site for IV access and what other sites can we choose? This article reviews sites other than the cephalic vein that can be used for intravenous catheter placement in small animals (TABLA 1).
General indications for the use of alternative intravenous catheter sites
Many factors affect the size and availability of blood vessels (TABLE 1). For example, patients who are hypotensive, hypothermic, or both will experience vasoconstriction. Newborns and small exotic domestic mammals often have extremely small blood vessels, making intravenous access difficult.1Physical limitations to venous access include tumors (eg, lipomas, mast cell tumors, skin tags), skin infections, and edema at the site. Other challenges to intravenous access include conformational changes in the animals, such as angular limb deformities or amputated limbs. Certain catheterization sites may be chosen over others to reduce bleeding around the insertion site in patients with thrombocytopenia or other bleeding disorders. The number of intravenous access sites will also be reduced due to extremity trauma (eg, fractures, open wounds).
BOX 1 Indications for the use of alternative intravenous catheter sites
- Pediatric patient (newborn)
- Clotting (thrombocytopenia and/or low coagulation factors)
- skin infection
- Open trauma (eg, hemorrhagic trauma)
- Congenital malformations (for example, angular deformity of the limb, amputation)
- The need for frequent blood draws (risk of scarring)
- Need for medications that have a high risk of causing phlebitis or tissue necrosis if extravasated (eg, KCl, dextrose, mannitol, diazepam, phenobarbital, chemotherapy agents)
IV=intravenous; KCl=potassium chloride
Other considerations include the mobility of the patient and the possibility of chewing or scraping the catheter. The possibility of dirtying the catheter due to frequent diarrhea, urination or urinary incontinence.and general stress while holding the patient by the catheteraccommodation in a certain area. The drugs alone can cause phlebitis, which should prompt consideration of other intravenous catheter options for patients possibly receiving high concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) (80 mEq/L or higher), dextrose (7% or higher ), mannitol, or chemotherapy agents. .
General catheter placement and maintenance
Sterile placement of the intravenous catheter is necessary. Hands must be washed properly, examination gloves or sterile gloves (depending on location) must be worn, and aseptic technique must be followed. To ensure the site is as clean and secure as possible and to avoid discomfort when the tape is removed, the site should be incised approximately 2 inches above and below the point where the catheter will be placed and to the ends. peripherals. The area should be cleansed with a sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution (normal saline) combined with a chlorhexidine lavage to achieve a 0.5% to 2% concentration.2,3After placement, the catheter should be flushed with sterile saline to confirm patency.it is then secured with sterile dressing material.3remove the catheter,regardless of location, it should be rewrapped daily and the insertion site should be assessed twice daily for signs of sloughing, swelling, infection (red or yellow discolored skin around the insertion site or pus-like discharge), or pain and sensitivity.2,3For lower extremity catheters, the nail and tip of the third and fourth toes should remain visible outside of the bandage to allow monitoring for signs of swelling. Elizabethan collars will prevent licking or chewing on the spot. The dressing material should be checked regularly to make sure it is dry and free of water, food, urine, or feces. Catheters not used for continuous intravenous fluids should be kept open by flushing them with saline every 2 to 4 hours.2-4
IV jugular vein
Place:The left and right external jugular veins are located on the ventral side of the neck, off the midline on either side of the trachea. (FIGURE 1A).5On each side, the jugular vein branches into the subclavian vein, which extends to the cranial vena cava.5The jugular veins lie superficial to the brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, and sternothyroid muscles and are innervated by cranial nerve XI (accessory nerve) and segmental nerves.5
Figure 1A. location of the jugular vein
Indications:When used as a central line, a jugular catheter is a large-bore catheter that is placed into the jugular vein.4,6It can be a normal catheter with 1 port or a multiport catheter that allows up to 3 ports to be used at the same time. The choice of which type to use is based on access to supplies and whether more fluids will be given or blood samples taken.6
Installation / Maintenance:To reduce the risk of infection, the catheter site should be prepared as aseptically as possible.4,6,7After catheter placement, drapes above and below the insertion site will help maintain sterility and protect the catheter from slipping out. Jugular catheters must be sutured to prolong their useful life and maintain proper position. The probe should be sewn to the base, tip, and both sides of the butterfly's wings. If the patient is monitoring central venous pressure, the catheter should be measured from the third to fifth ribs to ensure that the catheter tip is cranial to the right atrium.7A lateral chest x-ray should be taken to confirm that the catheter has not entered the heart (FIGURE 1B).7Otherwise, the anatomical location of the midline is not as important as long as blood samples can be obtained.7If the catheter is a standard 18 to 22 gauge peripheral catheter, a placement x-ray is not required.
Figure 1B. Radiographic appearance of the jugular vein catheter placed.
IV head vein component
Location (FIGURE 2):An additional cephalic vein branches from the cephalic vein in the proximal medial part of the carpal joint. It is located in front of the metacarpal bone and is shaped like a "Y" as it crosses the wrist.5The accessory cephalic vein is superficial to the extensor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis, and flexor carpi radialis.5These muscles innervate the distal radial, median, and ulnar nerves.5The position of this vein often makes it easier to see than the cephalic vein.
Figure 2. Location of the accessory cephalic vein.
Indications:Indications for use of this vein include easier access due to its prominence, limitations on the proximal side of the limb (eg, growths, edema, scar tissue), or the need to avoid use of the hindlimbs because they cannot be kept clean and dry. .
Installation / Maintenance:After inserting the catheter, make sure you have a good pad under the center of the catheter. For bandages that cover the entire foot up to the toes, the nail and the tip of the third and fourth toes must remain visible for control. Due to the position of the accessory cephalic vein, the catheter will extend medially. When this vein is used, make sure other veterinary staff know so they do not confuse the catheter with the cephalic vein catheter, which is twisted to one side and needs to be adjusted.
IV vein of the auricle
Place:The ear veins are located at the ends of the ear (middle auricular vein) and at the tail (lateral auricular vein).5These veins are adjacent to the spinal and caudal auricular nerves, which branch into the otolobulillar and facial nerves.5
Indications/contraindications:This position can be used for anesthetized patients when below-field catheter positions are not available or no longer work, or for patients who have large ears (eg,8,9Vasoconstriction makes the ear vein a poor choice for patients with hypothermia or inadequate perfusion. The veins of the ear are extremely superficial and care must be taken not to perforate the pinna.
Installation / Maintenance (FIGURE 3):Venous catheters can be difficult to secure in place and should not be considered the first choice for a patient who requires significant volumes of fluid. In general, make sure the probe is securely attached to the ear with the tape. Suturing the tape to the ear may provide more stability, especially in patients who tend to nod. Probe integrity can be maintained by constructing an ear splint from a small cup or tongue depressor. If the patient must wear an Elizabethan collar, careful monitoring is required to ensure that the collar does not rub against the ear or dislodge the catheter.
Figure 3. The ear vein catheter is secured in place.
Lateral saphenous vein IV
Location (FIGURE 4):The lateral saphenous vein runs along the lateral side of the distal tibia, immediately proximal to the tibiotarsal (tibia) joint and superficial to the flexor digitalis superficialis, flexor digitalis longus, and gastrocnemius muscles.5The muscles surrounding this vein are innervated by the tibial and peroneal nerves.5In dogs, this vein is larger in diameter than the great saphenous vein.8
Figure 4A. Location of the lateral saphenous vein
Figure 4B. Catheter lateralni saphenous vein na mestu.
Figure 4C. A catheter is placed in the lateral saphenous vein.
Indications:The lateral saphenous vein can be used for a regular peripheral catheter or as the insertion site for a peripherally inserted central catheter (via PICC).6A PICC line is a large, long catheter, 18 gauge or larger, with one or more lumens. It can be inserted into a vein to help deliver large volumes of fluid, peripheral parenteral nutrition, or multiple medications through multiple ports (additional lumen ports keep medications separate).8,10PICC lines can help maintain vein longevity and integrity.8In a 2008 study, PICC lines successfully remained in patients for an average of 16.2 days.10There were no complications during catheterization (eg, venous thrombosis, sepsis, extravasation). Bandaging the catheter after placement can be difficult due to the proximity of the tibial joint. For a typical peripheral catheter, the tape should be tight enough to hold the catheter in place, but should allow enough room for the skin, muscle, and tendon to fluctuate in size after fluid resuscitation. Tape that is too tight can lead to swelling of the feet and toes. The possibility of swelling can be minimized by starting the bandage on the distal side of the foot and working proximally. The third and fourth digits must remain exposed for tracking. The bandage should be close to the catheter insertion site (usually the proximal tibia).
Internal saphenous vein IV
Location (FIGURE 5):The great saphenous vein lies on the medial to distal side of the proximal femur, superficial to the gastrocnemius and sartorius muscles.5The nerves that surround this vein are the femoral nerve and its distal branch (saphenous nerve).5
Figure 5. Location of the great saphenous vein.
Indications:The great saphenous vein is a good site for the catheter in patients who cannot walk and have no other open or accessible veins. In cats, the great saphenous vein is larger andit is easier to catheterize than the lateral saphenous vein.8
Installation / Maintenance:To place this catheter, the patient should be on the same side as the desired vessel (ie, in the right lateral position to access the right great saphenous vein) and the person supporting the patient should hold the contralateral end of the pelvis in abduction. After the catheter is placed, tape should be placed around the center of the catheter and wrapped around the patient's thigh. Care must be taken to keep the tape loose enough to prevent swelling of the distal end. The pads can be placed between the patient's legs (eg, if the patient is very mobile, the catheter could easily move).
Common dorsal digital vein (dorsal pedal vein) IV
Location (FIGURE 6):The dorsal pedal vein is located on the dorsal side of the leg, superficial to the extensor digitorum longus and the extensor retinaculum. It is innervated by the common nerve.5The vein begins to branch out in the shape of the letter "Y" in the middle of the metatarsal bones. either the left or right branch can be used.5The lack of excess fat or skin in the area often makes this vein more visible than most.
Figure 6A. Position of the dorsal pedal vein in the dog.
Figure 6B. Dorsal pedal venous catheter placed in a ferret.
Installation / Maintenance:Once the catheter is inserted, tape should be placed around the center to secure it to the leg. When wrapping the catheter, start on the distal side of the extremity and extend the wrap near or above the ankle joint for added security.
Vena sublingual IV
Location (FIGURE 7):The sublingual vein originates from the dorsal part of the tongue and courses caudally to the myloid muscle.5
Figure 7A. Location of the sublingual vein. Courtesy of Gilberto Enrique Segnini Herrera, ES Professor of the Faculty of Health Sciences.
Figure 7B. A sublingual venous catheter was placed. Courtesy of Gilberto Enrique Segnini Herrera, ES Professor of the Faculty of Health Sciences.
footprints: The sublingual vein can be used for a short time in anesthetized patients. If peripheral intravenous access is lost while the animal is under anesthesia, catheterization of the sublingual vein may be attempted because the tongue is often still easily accessible.Typically, a sublingual catheter is used for intravenous drug administration to maintain anesthesia until a new peripheral catheter is placed.
Installation / Maintenance:When placing a sublingual catheter, first clean the tongue as aseptically as possible with a solution of chlorhexidine and saline (0.13% solution). However, before cleaning, make sure the endotracheal tube cuff is inflated to prevent passage of cleaning solution or chlorhexidine fluid into the trachea. After cleaning the catheter site, rinse your mouth with sterile water or saline to prevent the corrosive effects of prolonged chlorhexidine exposure to the tongue. Tongue depressors can be used to create a splint to add rigidity to the tongue and make it easier to hold the catheter in place.
corpus cavernosum IV
Location (FIGURE 8):The corpus cavernosum consists of 2 columns of spongy tissue on the shaft of the penis.5This tissue is full of blood vessels that enlarge during an erection.5The corpus cavernosum is located on the lateral side of the penis, caudal to the penile opening.5
Figure 8. Corpus cavernosum (white arrow).
Indications:Although not widely used, corporal catheterization is a short-term option to administer resuscitative fluids or drugs untilthe second IV access route is achieved.11,12Experimentalmodels showed catheters placed in the bodyCavernosum can support adequate flow rates to resuscitate hypovolemic animals and can be used to perform cardiac arrest.medications (such as epinephrine, atropine).11Although the administration of other emergency medications by this route has not been studied, complications have not been reported after the administration of blood products and intravenous phenobarbital to some patients through the corpora cavernosa.12
Installation / Maintenance:A large diameter catheter (18 or 19 gauge) was inserted into the lateral skin of the penis at a 45° angle caudal to the opening of the penis into the corpus cavernosum.12The catheter can be glued and sewn to the dorsal side of the penis.
Vena umbilical IV
Place:The umbilical vein is found in the navel of newborns.
Indications/contraindications:The umbilical vein is accessible immediately after birth, as long as the vein is not ligated after a cesarean section.12Because the umbilical cord begins to dry out, harden, and fall off within 24 to 72 hours of birth, this vein may no longer be a viable option after 24 hours.
Installation / Maintenance:Accessing this vein can be difficult and time consuming if not practiced regularly. Therefore, a better option for intravenous access in the newborn might be an intraosseous catheter. To access the umbilical vein, the base of the umbilicus must be wrapped with umbilical tape tight enough to prevent bleeding.12To avoid infection and possible sepsis in the newborn, the sterility of the site preparation should be similar to that of a central line or PICC.12The catheter should not advance more than a few centimeters above the point where the flash of blood appears. Further progress could result in the insertion of a catheter into the portal vein system. An x-ray is necessary to make sure it is well seated.12
Location (FIGURE 9):The 3 most common sites for intraosseous catheter placement are the medullary cavities of the greater tubercle of the proximal humerus, the intertrochanteric fossa of the proximal femur, and the tibial ganglion.12-14 (screen, others).Other sites include the ilium and ilium in small mammals and the distal ulna and proximal tibia in birds.1,12,13
Figure 9A. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (A) Catheter in the proximal humerus.
Figure 9B. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (B) Radiographic appearance of the catheter in the proximal humerus.
Figure 9C. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (C) Catheter placed in the trochanteric fossa of the femur.
Figure 9D. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (D) Catheter placed in tibial condylitis.
Figure 9E. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (E) Radiographic appearance of the catheter in the proximal tibia.
Figure 9F. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (F) Catheter placed in the wing of the ilium.
Figure 9G. Placement of intraosseous catheters. (G) Radiographic appearance of the catheter in the iliac wing.
Indications/contraindications:Intraosseous catheters may be used when a venous catheter cannot be placed. Most drugs that can be given intravenously can also be given intraosseously.12The exceptions are drugs that are toxic to the bone marrow (eg, sodium bicarbonate, chemotherapy agents, large amounts of hypertonic saline).12,13If the catheter is moved into the spongy part of the bone that has a network of blood vessels and capillaries, a blood sample can be taken.intraosseous catheter.15in a studyof 12 dogswhat was compared0.5 mL of blood was collected from the jugular vein opposite the proximal tibia, samples were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein, lactate, potassium, sodium and chloride. The authors found statistically significant differences between blood collected at the 2 sites for BUN, potassium, sodium, and chloride, and a large but not statistically significant difference for PCV.15However, it turns out that there are differences.blood from intraosseous catheter and without clinical significanceit can be used as a method to estimate parameters, excluding potassium and PCV, in healthy dogs. Further studies in critically ill patients are needed to determine if this pathway is reliable for other blood values.
Installation / Maintenance:Since the placement of any intraosseous catheter involves passage through superficial and underlying tissues and muscles, there is always a risk of muscle trauma and nerve damage. For example, the intertrochanteric fossa of the proximal femur is adjacent to the sciatic nerve, which innervates the biceps femoris muscle (among others).5Other associated muscles and nerves that may be affected during intraosseous catheter placement include the brachiocephalic muscle/spinal accessory nerve to the proximal humerus, the gluteal muscles/cranial or caudal gluteal nerve to the transtrochanteric fossa of the femur, and the quadriceps nerve to the femur. proximal.5Bilateral radiographs can confirm proper placement (FIGURE 10).
Figure 10A. Incorrectly positioned intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus.
Figure 10B. It is important to take radiographs in two views because in the lateral view the catheter may appear correctly positioned (B), but in the dorsal view the catheter is seen outside the bone (C).
Figure 10C. It is important to take radiographs in two views because in the lateral view the catheter may appear correctly positioned (B), but in the dorsal view the catheter is seen outside the bone (C).
As with all other catheters, placement of an intraosseous catheter must be sterile. For injured extremities, fractures must be ruled out before placing an intraosseous catheter, as any fluid or medication injected through the catheter could leak from the bone into the surrounding muscle and tissue.13Patients who are not ideal candidates for intraosseous catheters are those with diseases or conditions that make the bone prone to fracture (eg, in geriatric patients).sixteen
For veterinary nurses, preparing for the unexpected should be considered part of a normal day. When cephalic veins are not available for any reason, veterinarians should have a backup plan for alternative routes of venous access. Knowledge of the correct anatomical locations of individual blood vessels, including bony landmarks, as well as the underlying muscles and nerves, is critical to correct catheter placement and to reduce catheter-related trauma. Of the many options for obtaining intravenous access, the option chosen should be the one that best suits the patient's condition and needs.
Editor's note:An earlier version of this article incorrectly referred to the ilium as the ileum. Additionally, the legend to Figure 10 misidentified the proximal humerus. This has been fixed. I apologize for the mistake.
- Darbo-McClellan H. Exotic Pet Emergencies. In: Norkus C, editor.Εγχειρίδιο Small Animal Emergency and Intensive Care Veterinary Technician. Wiley Blackwell; 2019: 378-379.
- Trent K. Venous access. In: Norkus C, editor.Εγχειρίδιο Small Animal Emergency and Intensive Care Veterinary Technician. Wiley Blackwell; 2019: 35-43.
- American Association of Animal Hospitals. Placement and maintenance of peripheral intravenous catheters for infection prevention. Accessed June 2022.https://www.aaha.org/aaha-guidelines/infection-control-configuration/protocols/intravenous-catheter-placement-and-maintenance2/
- Babyak S, Backus J. Emergency medicine and critical care nursing skills. In: Norkus C, editor.Εγχειρίδιο Small Animal Emergency and Intensive Care Veterinary Technician. Wiley Blackwell; 2019: 584-588.
- Singh B.Dyce, Sack, and Wensing's Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. Elsevier; 2018.
- Harold D. Central venous catheterization. In: Silverstein DC, Hopper K, editors.Small animal intensive care medicine.. Elsevier; 2015:1013-1017.
- Williams K, Linklater A. Central venous catheter placement: modified Seldinger techniques. Information Clinic. January 2015. Accessed June 2022.https://www.cliniciansbrief.com/article/central-venous-catheter-placement-modified-seldinger-technique
- Davis H. Peripheral venous catheterization. In: Silverstein DC, Hopper K, editors.Small animal intensive care medicine.. Elsevier; 2015:1005-1008.
- Robinson R. Companion animal fluid therapy part 2: planning and follow-up. Vet Times UK. Published September 19, 2016. Accessed June 2022.https://www.vettimes.co.uk/app/uploads/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced-cache/1/companion-animal-fluid-therapy-part-2-planning-and-monitoring.pdf
- Du L, Redmond K, Johnstone S, De Leacy M, Harper J. Peripherally inserted central catheters in the saphenous vein: technique, indications, and safety concerns.J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2008, 52 (1): 68-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1673.2007.01914.x
- Stein M, Gray R. Corpus cavernosum as emergency vascular access in dogs.radio contract. 1995, 2(12):1073-1077. doi:10.1016/s1076-6332(05)80518-5
- Lee JA, Guieu L, Bussieres G, Smith C. Advanced vascular access in small animal emergency and intensive care.frontal veterinary science. 2021.; 8:703595. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.703595
- Giunti M, Otto C. Intraosseous catheterization. In: Silverstein DC, Hopper K, editors.Small animal intensive care medicine.. Elsevier; 2015:1009-1013.
- Dornhofer P. Intraosseous vascular access. Statistics pearls. Updated June 11, 2022. Accessed November 8, 2022.https://www.statpearls.com/articlelibrary/viewarticle/23715
- Ackert L, Boysen SR, Schiller T. A pilot study comparing venous blood and bone marrow aspirates to determine emergency room blood parameters in healthy dogs.J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2019.; 29 (4): 399-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/vec.12858
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Knowledge of the proper anatomy, including the underlying muscles, nerves, and anatomical location of the vein is important when placing the catheter to minimize the risk of trauma to the tissues in the area. Proper catheter care and maintenance will increase its longevity and may reduce the number of times a new catheter needs to be inserted. There are many unusual catheter placement sites that are overlooked and underutilized.
Readers will be able to visualize where unusual IV access points can be placed, recall the associated muscles and nerves around the vessel of choice, provide examples of indications and contraindications for IV catheter site selection, and discuss how to secure and maintain access points. unusual intravenous
1. In a critically ill patient, what are the medications that would prompt him to place a jugular catheter (central line) to maintain peripheral vascular integrity?
one. Ondansetron and maropitant
are you. 5% dextrose, colloidal fluid
does. 7% dextrose and potassium chloride (KCl) >80 mEq/L
hej KCl 50 mEq/L i deksametazon SP
2. What is the main contraindication to placing an intraosseous catheter?
one. The patient is extremely hypothermic.
are you. There is a bone fracture being considered for catheter placement.
does. The patient should receive dextrose
Hey, the patient has to receive multiple intravenous medications.
3. If the umbilical catheter is advanced too far, what system can it enter?
one. portal venous system
are you. Central Nervous System
does. hepatic system
hello heart system
4. How can the veins of the ear be attached to the ear?
one. Use paper glue to attach the probe
are you. Tape the catheter as you would any other peripheral catheter.
does. Use a tongue depressor or paper cup as an ear splint
hey, do not use a bandage for the catheter so as not to force the ear
5. If an internal saphenous catheter is placed in a lateral decubitus patient, what steps can be taken to maintain the integrity of the catheter?
one. Roll up the towels and place them between the patient's legs to prevent swelling and inflammation of the lower leg.
are you. Turn the patient every 2 hours as he will not be able to stand up
does. Place substantial padding under and around the catheter.
hey Let the patient try to ambulate on their own with the fluid tubes attached
meter. a and c
there are B and D
6. Which of the following is not a potential complication of cavernous catheter placement?
one. penile trauma
does. pelvic trauma
hi kidney trauma
7. The distal tibia can be used for intraosseous catheter in birds.
are you. FAKE
8. Which cranial nerve could be damaged by attempting to place a sublingual catheter?
9. If a severely ill, hypotensive, and hypovolemic patient is under anesthesia for thoracic surgery and the main catheter that was placed preoperatively and is now covered becomes occluded, which of the following sites would NOT be considered acceptable for catheter placement? a new catheter in maintaining large amounts of fluids and giving more medications?
one. Dorsal common digital vein
si. Lateral saphenous vein
does. Intraosseous catheter in the trochanteric fossa of the femur, hip, or iliac fossa
hello usna vein
10. If the jugular (central line) catheter is properly placed to measure central venous pressure, where should the tip of the catheter be seen on the lateral radiograph?
one. The space from the third to the fifth rib with the tip of the catheter located exactly cranial to the right atrium
are you. The sixth to eighth rib space with the catheter tip within the right aorta
does. The space from the third to the fifth rib with the tip of the catheter at the thoracic inlet
hey The space from the seventh to the ninth rib with a catheter in the right ventricle
What is the name of the veins where intravenous catheters are commonly placed in small animals? ›
Select an appropriate vein
Peripheral indwelling IV catheters are most commonly placed in the cephalic vein in dogs and cats. In the hind limb, they are most commonly placed in the lateral saphenous vein. Other veins used often for catheterisation include the accessory cephalic, and medial saphenous.
Intravenous Administration. The jugular vein is very superficial and easy to visualize once the hair or fleece has been clipped in most sheep and goats. Placement of a jugular catheter is best accomplished with the small ruminant patient positioned in lateral recumbency if possible.What are the complications of veterinary IV catheter? ›
Complications were documented and classified as extravasation, phlebitis, dislodgement, occlusion and line breakage.Where do you put an IV catheter in an avian? ›
Intravenous catheters are placed in the jugular vein of larger birds and median metatarsal of smaller companion avian species. The distal ulna and proximal tibiotarsal bone are the recommended sites for IO catheter placement.What are common intravenous catheter sites for snakes? ›
The two common sites for venipuncture in snakes are the caudal (ventral tail) vein and, less preferred, the heart.What 3 sites may be used for venipuncture in dogs? ›
The most frequently used sites for canine blood collection are the cephalic, jugular, and lateral saphenous veins.Where is the IV catheter placed in a cow? ›
Most common site for venous catheterization is the jugular vein; other sites include the auricular, cephalic, and coccygeal veins.Which vein can be used in most common animal species for venipuncture where is it located? ›
Small blood samples may be collected from the lateral saphenous vein in virtually all small mammals. The cranial vena cava is generally the quickest method to collect the largest amount of blood from the ferret. The jugular vein and femoral vein are also popular venipuncture sites.What vein is IV in cows? ›
Any large vein will work for an IV injection, including the milk vein ahead of the udder on a lactating cow or the jugular vein on either side of the neck in the groove above the animal's windpipe and esophagus. A large needle — at least 16-gauge and 1.5 inches long — works best for adult animals.Which vessel is most commonly used for placing IV catheters? ›
Superficial veins of the upper extremity are the primary location for placement of peripheral IV catheters (PIVC). Successful PIVCs have been defined as those that function to both infuse fluids and aspirate blood for the duration of a patient's need .
Which is the most common vein for catheter placement? ›
There are three main access sites for the placement of central venous catheters, namely internal jugular, common femoral, and subclavian veins. These are the preferred sites for temporary prominent venous catheter placement.What are vein small veins called? ›
After blood passes through the capillaries, it enters the smallest veins, called venules. From the venules, it flows into progressively larger and larger veins until it reaches the heart.What vessel is where most catheters are placed? ›
ACCESS SITE — Centrally inserted central venous catheters are primarily placed via the internal jugular vein, subclavian vein, or femoral vein. Alternative insertion sites include the external jugular vein, cephalic vein, and proximal great saphenous vein.